The Brazil forward missed the opening five games as he tried and failed to seal a move back to Barcelona.
“It is not the first time I have been booed by everyone,” said the 27-year-old.
“It is sad but I know that, from now on, every game I play will be an away game.”
PSG ultras booed Neymar when his name was read out before the game, when he touched the ball, when he took a corner and when he shot wide.
There was a mix of cheers and boos after he scored the late winner.
Neymar added: “I made it clear I have nothing against the fans, nothing against Paris St-Germain as a club.
“Everyone knows I wanted to leave. I am not going to get into the details of what happened.
“It is time to turn the page. Today I am a Paris St-Germain player and I am going to give everything on the field.”
Neymar’s goal – earning his side a 1-0 victory – was a sensational acrobatic volley from Abdou Diallo’s cross which went in off the post.
Neymar had the ball in the net for the second time moments later but it was disallowed by the video assistant referee for offside.
There were also chants and banners using vulgar language about Neymar, including a reference to the 20m euros he had reportedly said he would pay in order to join Barcelona.
The forward wanted to move back to Catalonia in the summer, but Barcelona were unable to reach an agreement with PSG.
He missed the Trophee des Champions and opening four Ligue 1 games, only returning after the close of the transfer window.
There were also PSG debuts for goalkeeper Keylor Navas and striker Mauro Icardi, on loan from Real Madrid and Inter Milan respectively, while former Manchester United midfielder Ander Herrera made his Ligue 1 debut in the second half.
Neymar will be unavailable for PSG’s next game – Wednesday’s Champions League home match with Real Madrid – because of a three-match European suspension.